Classical Models

Classical models are simple geometric shapes like Platonic solids, cones, cylinders, ellipsoids, ruled surfaces, and many others whose properties are well-known.

These models do not come from recent research. Beside completeness these models are included in this server since they are often used as basic building blocks and they provide simple test candidates for many numerical algorithms.


  1. M.P. do Carmo Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces Prentice- Hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1976
  2. Gerd Fischer Mathematical Models Vieweg Verlag 1986.
  3. George Francis A Topological Picture Book Springer Verlag 1987.
  4. Alfred Gray Modern Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces CRC Press 1994.
  5. M. Schilling Catalog Mathematischer Modelle für den höheren mathematischen Unterricht Leipzig, 1911.

Technical Note

As a guide, meshes should have no holes, no degenerate triangles and elements, no duplicate vertices. Surfaces should have meshes with an adjacency relation.